According to the article published by a group of scientists at Yale University in the United States in November 2015, The state has allocated more than 100 billion dollars for cancer research. But; The cancer did not come to the desired stage of the war. In February this year, President Obama stated that he would save another $ 1 billion in cancer research. In cancer diagnosis and treatment; Countries are making big investments in order to achieve the desired success. In our country, different institutions and organizations, especially TUBITAK, are trying not to support the researches in this area.
On the other hand, work on stem cells worldwide has gained momentum in recent years. The stem cells we started to see when a living thing started to form; Are called "magic cells" because they can differentiate and turn into many different cell types in our bodies. In addition to embryonic stem cells with the capacity to create all organs, there are also adult stem cells that have the capacity to transform into some cell types. Research on induced pluripotent stem cells developed in the laboratory environment also grows like an avalanche.
In recent years, in addition to all these, "cancer stem cells" have begun to be mentioned. In fact, 150 years ago, a famous scientist named Robert Wirchow talked about cancer stem cells for the first time. In the article; The cancerous tissue had already indicated that it was caused by immature cells. For many years, scientists continued to argue about the existence of cancer stem cells. Finally, researchers agreed that cancer stem cells exist. One of the most important reasons for the cancer-resistant treatment of cancer is the presence of cancer stem cells increased the data on the subject of cancer stem cell research and the point reached Maltepe University Cancer and Stem Cell Research Center Director Professor. Dr. We asked Ranan Gulhan Aktas.
Cancer root cells; Is it similar to normal stem cells?
Both normal stem cells and cancer stem cells have proliferative and differentiating properties. While normal stem cells migrate to areas where they need to multiply in a controlled manner, cancer stem cells multiply uncontrollably. They may also migrate to the zones where they should not be found uncontrolled. This, too, Causing the cancerous tissue to grow and spread.
Where do cancer root cells originate?
It has been shown that cancer stem cells can appear in three different ways: Normal stem cells can be transformed into cancer stem cells under the influence of environmental and genetic factors. The "progenitor cells" seen in the stage before normal stem cells turn into fully differentiated cells can also differentiate into cancer stem cells. Differentiated cells can also be transformed into cancer stem cells with environmental and genetic effects.
Where are the root cells in cancerous tissue?
Cancer stem cells have been observed at very different rates in many different types of cancer. For example, studies on breast cancer have found cancer stem cells at rates ranging from 11-35% in studies, 0.3-25% in colon cancer, and 3-36% in bladder cancer.
Is there a direct correlation between the number of stem cells observed in cancerous tissue and the course of cancer?
Some of the data supports this. However, even with a low rate of stem cells, bad-looking cancer shows that this is not always true. For example, in the pancreatic cancers among the most deadly cancer cases, 0.2-3% of the root cells were found.
Can cancer stem cells in cancer tissue be distinguished?
Some of the markers carried by cancer stem cells have been identified. By means of these markers, the cancer stem cells in the tissue can be identified. The rate of markers varies according to different types of cancer. The most common markers include CD133, CD44, CD24, ALDH. The number of tokens revealed is increasing day by day. With different techniques, cells with these markers in cancerous tissue can be marked and isolated.
Cancer root cells exhibit aggressive behavior in the tissues?
According to some researchers; These cells become active in the cancerous tissue while they remain silent, under the influence of environmental or genetic factors, resulting in undesirable effects. But; The supporting data is limited.
What evidence is there for cancer stem cells in cancer formation and its effects on spread?
In mammals with breast cancer, stem cells are isolated from cancer tissues and transplanted into normal animals. In this way, breast cancer has also been observed in healthy animals. Grothenius et al. In one study they carried out in 2012, they separated and injected CD133 cells carrying and carrying non-cancer stem cell markers into different animals. The cells bearing the CD 133 marker showed that new animals were formed in the animals to which they were injected and that other group animals continued their lives in a healthy way. Similarly, oral squamous carcinoma and colon cancer cases have been shown to induce new tumors in CD133-positive cells.
In clinical trials, the presence of cancer stem cells in different types of cancer is being investigated. One of the most comprehensive of these is the study of 1047 patients with AML. As the cancer stem cell ratio increases, the course of the disease worsens in these patients.
How are we in the battle with cancer stem cells?
As known; Chemotherapy, radiotherapy, surgery in different types of cancer have been used for years. In cancer cases that do not respond to these treatments, the data on the subject that the presence of cancer stem cells may be responsible has increased. Therefore, it is emphasized the importance of adding treatments targeting cancer stem cells in newly regulated treatments. There are very important developments in treatments targeting cancer stem cells. Researches aiming to reach and neutralize these cells in different forms are being carried out. A group of researchers; Cancer stem cell markers carried by the markers. Treatments aimed at killing cells carrying these markers in tissue are trying to develop. Another group; These cells are trying to develop agents that target the signal pathways that play a role in their renewal. A third group of researches; Stem cells in the environment and the cells in this environment by affecting the proliferation is trying to prevent. There is another group of researchers working on the development of treatment that removes cancer stem cells by targeting the ABC delivery system. Significant research has strengthened hopes that cancer-resistant cases in the near future will diminish.